夏季的十件烦心事(上)

2024-02-12   手机访问

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It is instilled in the minds of most people from a young age that summer is an exceptional time of year when good things are in abundance. It's a season to relax, catch up with friends and family, and experience life.

大多数人从小就被灌输了一种思想:夏天乃一年佳季,这时生活最丰富,是一个带上亲朋好友去放松、去体验生活的好季节。
But summer is also one of the most explosive times of the year. Maybe it's the carefree attitudes or the heavy volume of traffic that sets this season apart from the others. Whatever the underlying reason may be, one thing is clear: Summer kills.
可是,夏季也是一年中最上火的时候,也许是天气热得头昏或是路上的噪音使夏天有别于其他季节。但无论潜在的因素究竟是什么,有件事是显而易见的——夏季的伤亡率高。

10.Things That Fly

10.飞行蚊虫

mosquito

With 176 known species in the United States, mosquitoes are everywhere. Most people don't give these small pests a second thought. Hibernating during the wintertime, they reemerge when the temperature reaches roughly 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit ). They thrive in hot weather, and their season will reach its peak accordingly.

蚊子无处不在,在美国就有176个已知物种。多数人都不会仔细考虑这种小东西。当气温恢复到10摄氏度(50华氏度)后,经历了冬季冬眠的蚊子就会苏醒。他们生长于温暖的时候,并在夏季达到生长高峰期。
They are not just a nuisance for causing red, itchy bumps. They sadly pose a more serious threat. Often, people associate mosquito-borne illnesses with less developed countries. However, that is far from true.
蚊虫叮咬带来的问题不仅仅是红色发痒的包。倒霉的话,你的情况会比这严重的多。我们通常认为蚊虫传播疾病只会在欠发达国家存在,不过这种想法是大错特错的。
Each year, over 1,000 Americans contract serious illnesses or die as a result of mosquito bites. Mosquito-borne diseases that are frequently documented include West Nile virus, dengue, chikungunya, and even the Zika virus.
每年都有超过1000名美国人因蚊虫叮咬而重病甚至死亡。常见的被记录的蚊虫传播疾病有西尼罗病、登革热、奇昆古尼亚热病甚至寨卡病毒等。
The West Nile virus is the most commonly seen of those few. In extreme cases, it can cause brain damage and even death. In recent years, dengue has also increased in occurrence. The mosquitoes that transmit these diseases are active both day and night, making the problem seemingly impossible to avoid and contain.
西尼罗病是这其中最常见的疾病,严重情况下它可造成脑损伤甚至死亡。近年来,登革热的发病率也有所增加。传播疾病的蚊子早晚都很活跃,这就使得控制、遏制疾病看起来不可能实现。

9.Car Accidents

9.交通事故

crash accident

As if driving wasn't dangerous enough already, it seems as though the distractions and hazards reach new highs in the summer. The sheer volume of people on the road during the summer is enough to cause havoc and provoke anxiety. Many are traveling and vacationing. New drivers are also out of school, ready to use their newfound freedom.

即使开车已经没有什么危险,在夏天,分心次数和危险系数好像仍会达到新高。夏季道路上涌动的大量车流和人群足以引发恐慌造成悲剧。很多人都会在夏天旅游和度假去,驾驶新手也完成学习,准备享受他们新获得的自由。
To no one's surprise, young drivers, ranging in age from 15 to 20, are responsible for a substantial number of traffic accidents during the summer months, more than any other time of the year. During these months, there are about 16 traffic accidents per day involving those in that age range.
毫不夸张的说,15~20岁的年轻驾驶者对夏季交通事故频发负的主要责任比一年中的其他任何时候都多。这段时间,每天就大概有16起青年肇事案件。
New drivers are not the only determinant that makes summer a dangerous time for those on the roads. Weather conditions also seem to play a role. The warmth and the sun have the effect of making people more laid-back, even carefree, which can result in accidents.
新手也并不是让夏天的公路危险的唯一因素,天气条件似乎逃不了。阳光和热浪使得人们更加懒散,甚至分心短神,从而导致事故。
During the winter, people are more cautious when driving, news stations frequently alert the public about road conditions, and fewer people are on the road. With that in mind, it doesn't seem too far-fetched that July 3 and 4 have a long-standing record of being the deadliest days on the road. Overall, people are much more alert when driving in the winter. In the summer, people just want to cruise with the top down—most likely speeding, too.
在冬天,人们开车时会更警觉,新闻站也会时常警示公众道路情况,路上的人也更少。这样对比下来,一年中夏季道路肇事率最高就显得不那么难以接受了。毕竟,冬天人们开车会很小心,而在夏天,你只不过想尽可能快速狂飙而已。
The weather impacts drivers in other ways as well in the summer. Unpredictable thunderstorms and extreme conditions can pop up out of nowhere. Also, as many learned in grade school, heat makes molecules expand (i.e., the air in tires). This can lead to a blowout, which is dangerous for motorists.
天气也可以在其他方面影响驾驶员。无法预测的暴雷雨和极端的天气随处可见。另外,根据热胀冷缩这一常识,夏天车胎气压的不稳定而导致的爆胎对驾驶员来说是相当危险的。
Warm weather also means that more people ride motorcycles and bicycles, which creates an added layer of danger for drivers. Pedestrians, too, are outside more in the warmer months. Road congestion and heavy traffic may spark road rage as well. It is almost as though the list of summertime driving dangers is endless.
夏天骑行的人也会增多,这使驾驶的危险等级又上了一档。夏天行人也增多了,交通繁忙、大堵车也使得路怒现象频发——夏季的交通危险似乎无穷无尽。

8.'Trauma Season'

8.创伤季节

on the operation

Health-care workers refer to the summer months as "trauma season." Reports from Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh show that the number of kids seen per month doubles during the summertime for traumatic injury–related incidents. Adult trauma cases also increase at this time of year.

医疗工作者称夏季为“创伤季”。匹兹堡儿童医院的报告显示,夏季每月的儿童外伤事件要翻一番。同时,成人的创伤病例也有所增加。
Among the most common category of injury in the summer is falls. It's not just senior citizens, though. Kids on jungle gyms, skateboards, slippery pool decks—you name it—everyone seems to lack balance during this time of year.
夏季最常见的外伤是跌伤。跌伤不仅是老年人的专利,也属于在丛林健身场,滑板,滑溜的泳池甲板上的孩子们。不管怎么说,这时候人们都很难保持平衡。
Ambitious "do-it-yourselfers" climbing ladders and engaging in other risky activities are likely candidates for fall-related injuries. Studies show that if a person falls more than 9 meters (30 ft), they have a 50 percent chance of dying. In years past, falls have sometimes surpassed car accidents as the top contender for hospitalization.
热爱DIY,爬爬梯子或者做其他危险的活动都是跌落的因素。研究表明,正常人从9米(30英尺)以上的高度跌落,死亡率就高达五成。过去年间,因跌落送医的人数有时会超过因车祸送医的人数。
Usually, falls are preventable. Allowing kids to play outside and be active is important, but proper supervision is equally as important. Is it still considered an accident if a fall is preventable?
通常情况下,跌落是可以避免的。孩子在外活动、培养技能是很重要,但监护更重要。如果可以预防,还会有跌伤吗?
Falling is not the only trouble that people manage to get into during the summer. Lawn mowers, bicycles, trampolines, and ATVs are all responsible for sending people to the hospital as well.
跌伤也不是人们夏季受伤的唯一原因,割草机、自行车、蹦床和ATV都有非常可能让送你去医院。

7.Fairs, Carnivals, Amusement Parks—Oh, My!

7.惊悚娱乐

horrible

We've all heard the stories of people getting hurt at an amusement park, but we pretend it could never happen to us. (This is called third-person or bystander effect.) It's not rare to see roller coasters and other rides "stuck" at the end of a long day of toting thousands of passengers around.

我们都听说过游客在游乐园受伤的事(参见《死神来了》电影),但我们从不担心我们是那个倒霉蛋(这被称为第三者或旁观者效应)。
All too often, things become more dangerous than just a ride becoming stuck or ceasing to work at the end of a hot, busy day. Annually, around 4,000 are injured at amusement parks and fairs combined.
但是,长时间运作的机器突然卡住这事可不少见。多数时间里,情况要比机器卡住或停止运行危险得多。每年在游乐园和展览会上就有约4000人受伤。
It's all fun and games until someone's seat belt breaks loose during a roller coaster ride. Horror stories of children falling off rides and even being decapitated paint a nasty image of these places to which we go for a good time.
过山车很有趣,可当你的安全带松开后可就不那么愉快了。儿童从车道上摔下甚至死亡这种吓人事也使我们对游乐园失去了好印象。
From waterslides to Ferris wheels, the ways to become injured are endless. In 2016, an 11-year-old girl was scalped after her hair was caught in a carnival ride. It took a horrifying 10 minutes for the operator to stop the ride, as the child's mother and other bystanders watched the incident unfold.
从水滑梯到摩天轮,在哪都有可能受伤。2016年,一位11岁女孩的头发被狂欢节花车缠住。她的母亲也在现场目睹了全过程,操作者花了10分钟才将车停下来。

6.Too Hot To Handle

6.天气过热

heat

Heatstroke and dehydration are all too familiar. Every year, people find themselves experiencing these two illnesses as a result of the blazing summer heat.

中暑和脱水我们再熟悉不过。每年,因为高温,人们都会经历这种痛苦事。
Dehydration is defined as the excessive loss of body fluids. It's no secret that the human body can't function properly without water, so dehydration can be very dangerous in certain conditions.
脱水即人体过量失水。人体缺水就不会正常运作早已成为事实,所以在一定情况下,脱水是非常危险的。
Water loss and electrolyte loss are two different types of this condition. But the primary focus is preventing and treating it properly. Remembering to drink water throughout the day is vital to remaining hydrated.
脱水分为失水和电解液缺失两种。重点是合理的预防和缓解,对于预防脱水,记得经常补水尤为重要。
Most physicians say that 8 to 10 glasses of water per day are enough to keep one hydrated. However, this varies from person to person and depends on the weather conditions. Once full-blown dehydration kicks in, things get hairy. Twitching, lethargy, confusion, convulsions, and even delirium are all symptoms of this.
多数专家认为,8到10杯水足够满足日常饮水需求,但需求可能因人和环境的改变而改变。一旦真正脱水,问题就棘手了。抽搐,嗜睡,精神错乱,抽搐等症状都可能是脱水引起的。
Heatstroke is often seen in conjunction with dehydration. The symptoms of heatstroke, a form of hyperthermia, can vary—ranging from confusion and disorientation to coma. Affecting both young and old, heatstroke is usually considered a medical emergency and must be treated by a physician. In the summer months, this condition is often caused by overexertion.
中暑经常和失水有关。由高温引起的中暑的症状有从精神错乱和迷失方向到昏迷不定。因为中暑威胁着青年和老年人,它被认为是医疗紧急事件,必须由专业医疗人员处理。在夏季,这种情况一般都是由过度劳累引起。

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