2024-02-12   手机访问


VENICE — “You guys, just say ‘skooozy’ and walk through,” a young U.S. woman commanded her friends, caught in one of the bottlenecks of tourist traffic that clog Venice’s narrow streets, choke its glorious squares and push the locals of this enchanting floating city out and onto drab, dry land. “We don’t have time!”

Neither, the Italian government worries, does Venice.
Don’t look now, but Venice, once a great maritime and mercantile power, risks being conquered by day-trippers.
The soundtrack of the city is now the wheels of rolling luggage thumping up against the steps of footbridges as phalanxes of tourists march over the city’s canals. Snippets of Venetian dialect can still be heard between the gondoliers rowing selfie-snapping couples. But the lingua franca is a foreign mashup of English, Chinese and whatever other tongue the mega cruise ships and low-cost flights have delivered that morning. Hotels have replaced homes.


Italian government officials, lamenting what they call “low-quality tourism,” are considering limiting the numbers of tourists who can enter the city or its landmark piazzas.

“If you arrive on a big ship, get off, you have two or three hours, follow someone holding a flag to Piazzale Roma, Ponte di Rialto and San Marco and turn around,” said Dario Franceschini, Italy’s culture minister, who lamented what he called an “Eat and Flee” brand of tourism that had brought the sinking city so low.
“如果你是坐大船抵达的,下了船,你有两三个小时,跟随某个举着小旗子的人前往罗马广场(Piazzale Roma)、里阿尔托桥(Ponte di Rialto)、圣马可广场(San Marco),然后就要往回走,”意大利文化部长达里奥·弗兰切斯基尼(Dario Franceschini)为他口中的快餐式旅游感到惋惜,这种业态已经让这个下沉的城市的情况变得愈发糟糕。
“The beauty of Italian towns is not only the architecture, it’s also the actual activity of the place, the stores, the workshops,” Franceschini added. “We need to save its identity.”
The city’s locals, whatever is left of them anyway, feel inundated by the 20 million or so tourists each year. Stores have taken to putting signs on the windows showing the direction to St. Mark’s Square or Ponte di Rialto, so people will stop coming in to ask them where to go.
每年约有2000万名游客涌入威尼斯,让这座城市的居民——不论还剩下多少——有被淹没其中之感。各店铺不得不往窗户上放标牌,指明圣马克广场(St Mark’s Square)或里亚尔托桥所在的方向,以免人们纷纷跑进来问路。
The majority of the anxiety has centered on the cruise ships that pass through the Grand Canal, blotting out the landmarks like an eclipse blocking out the sun.
担忧主要集中在穿行于大运河(Grand Canal)中的游轮身上,它们遮蔽着一处处地标,就如同月球的影子遮蔽着太阳。
Some of the roughly 50,000 Venetians who remain in the city, down from about 175,000 in 1951, have organized associations against the “Big Ships,” selling T-shirts that show cruise boats with shark teeth threatening fishermen. In June, almost all the 18,000 Venetians who voted in an unofficial referendum on the cruise ships said they wanted them out of the lagoon.
“One problem is the ships,” said Franceschini, who called their passage in front of St. Mark’s Square “an unacceptable spectacle.”
But the ships bring in money, and since Venice is not the trading power of yore, it needs all the euros it can get. The cruise ships don’t just bring fees into the city, they also create jobs down a whole supply chain, benefiting mechanics, waiters and water taxis. The gondoliers who change into their striped shirts early in the morning and put sunscreen on their bald heads have steady work.
Many of Venice’s locals reside in the Castello section of the city, far enough from San Marco Square, the center of tourist gravity, to enjoy a semblance of normal life. But only a semblance.
“If you want to get some prosciutto, you can’t because the salumeria is gone,” said Tommaso Mingati, 41.
“如果你想要买点火腿,是买不到的,因为熟食店消失了,”现年41岁的托马索·明甘蒂(Tommaso Mingati)说。
His family kept a small apartment here but, like most former residents, had moved out to Mestre, the mainland section that no one has ever called Queen of the Adriatic. As his mother regretted the city’s becoming a “Disneyland on the Sea,” Mingati said that the expanding empire of bed-and-breakfasts was now forcing people out of Mestre.
All of those bed-and-breakfasts, and the city’s roughly 2,500 hotels, produce a lot of towels and linens that need laundering. Venice no longer has the capacity for such an undertaking. So, at dawn, boats carry the dirty laundry and garbage out to Tronchetto, an artificial island and parking lot for trucks coming from the mainland.
In turn, they deliver fresh towels but also untold gallons of drinking water, foodstuffs, bottles of orange Aperol to make the city’s ubiquitous Aperol Spritz and anything else consumed inside the lagoon.
回程时,它们会载满干净的毛巾,还有大量饮用水、食品、一瓶瓶橙色的柳橙苦酒——用以制作该市随处可见的鸡尾酒Aperol Spritz——以及在这里用得上的其他任何东西。
One weekend a year, during the Feast of the Redeemer in July, Venetians take back the city. They flow back in from Mestre to drink wine on the banks of the Grand Canal and wait for a fireworks show that puts New York’s Fireworks by Grucci to shame.
每年7月的一个周末过救赎节(Feast of the Redeemer)的时候,威尼斯人都会拿回对这座城市的主导权。他们纷纷从梅斯特赶回来,在大运河边喝葡萄酒,等待观看一场会让纽约的格鲁西烟花公司(Fireworks by Grucci)感到汗颜的烟花秀。
This year, the celebration coincided with the Venice Biennale, which draws thousands of sophisticated, globe-trotting visitors to Venice to check out the latest in art, dance and theater. The locals and the art enthusiasts have developed a sort of alliance against the crowds who march on St. Mark’s.
今年的救赎节撞上了威尼斯双年展(Venice Biennale),后者把成千上万来自全球各地的高端游客吸引到威尼斯,欣赏最新的艺术、舞蹈和戏剧作品。当地人和这些艺术爱好者,已经结成了某种抗衡前进在圣马克广场上的人潮的联盟。
“We are a model of what could be,” said Paolo Baratta, the president of the Biennale, as he watched the fireworks from the terrace of the festival’s headquarters. The people emptying out of the cruise ships, he said, “aren’t concerned with what happens in Venice.”
“我们提供了一种关于这座城市的可能前景的范本,”威尼斯双年展主席保罗·巴拉塔(Paolo Baratta)一边在双年展总部的露台上看烟花,一边说道。他说,从游轮中倾巢而出的那些人“并不关心威尼斯发生了什么”。
At night, many of the tourists return to their cruise ships or tuck in after early dinners. The result is a momentary reprieve but also, like Venice in its slow winter months, a time warp to an earlier Venice.
For me it is the one I first encountered nearly 20 years ago, before Google Maps, when I could get lost and stumble onto seemingly deserted or forgotten campos. At night, away from the city center, a couple of tourists celebrating their wedding at a divey cafe was not cloying, but charming.
Those enchanting hours stretched into the early morning, before the tourists stirred, when St. Mark’s Square itself was empty except for the pigeons and the early risers headed to work.
Those hours, with the shadows still long and the light reflecting off the lagoon and the triforia windows, reminded me of what Raffaelle Nocera, who otherwise sounded depressed about the state of his city, told me as he navigated a water bus around the Grand Canal.
那些时光——其间,地上的影子依然很长,光亮反射在泄湖和拱形窗上——让我想起本来似乎对这座城市的状态颇感沮丧的威尼斯人拉法埃莱·诺切拉(Raffaelle Nocera),一边在大运河上驾驶水上巴士一边对我说过的话。
“If you get up early enough,” Nocera said, “you get all of Venice to yourself.”
It reminds you of why it is so worth protecting, and why Italians have been taking a stand.
“Today it’s Piazza San Marco or Ponte di Rialto,” Franceschini said. “In a few years it could be that the problem spreads.”




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